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When two forces act on a body in different directions in one plane, they are equivalent to single force (the resultant) acting somewhere in between them. An example of this is when a sledge is pulled by two horizontal ropes spread at an angle. The sledge will move in a direction between the ropes along the line of their resultant force. Until the sledge moves, it will pull back against the ropes with a single horizontal force equal and opposite to the resultant of the two rope forces.It can be shown that when three such forces are balanced (that is in equilibrium), their lines of action all meet at a point. Using this fact, the resultant of two forces in the same plane at an angle can be found by a graphical method called the Parallelogram of Forces.
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• To understand the difference between vector and scalar quantities;
• To show vector addition and to understand the methods used to add vectors;
• To investigate the how different forces may be combined to produce equilibrium.
The object of this experiment is to test that when four or more forces are in equilibrium at a point, they can be represented by a Polygon of Forces from which unknown forces can be found.